Cipro is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug. It belongs to the group of fluoroquinolones. This antibiotic suppresses bacterial DNA gyrase (topoisomerases II and IV, responsible for the process of supercoiling of chromosomal DNA around nuclear RNA, which is necessary for reading genetic information), disrupts DNA synthesis, bacterial growth, and division. It causes pronounced morphological changes (including cell wall and membranes) and the rapid death of a bacterial cell.
It has a bactericidal effect on gram-negative organisms during rest and division (since it affects not only DNA gyrase, but also causes lysis of the cell wall), and gram-positive microorganisms only during the division period.
When this medicine is prescribed?
Infections and inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to ciprofloxacin are:
- respiratory tract;
- ear, throat, and nose;
- kidneys and urinary tract;
- digestive system (including mouth, teeth, jaws);
- gall bladder and biliary tract;
- skin integuments, mucous membranes, and soft tissues;
- musculoskeletal system.
Cipro is indicated for the treatment of sepsis and peritonitis, as well as for the prevention and treatment of infections in patients with reduced immunity (with immunosuppressive therapy).
Dosage and administration
The dose of Cipro depends on the disease severity, the type of infection, the body condition, the age, weight, and kidney function of the patient.
Ordinary recommended doses are:
- uncomplicated diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract – 0.25 g, and in complicated cases, 0.5 g 2 times a day;
- diseases of the lower respiratory tract of moderate severity – 0.25 g, and in more severe cases, 0.5 g, 2 times a day;
- the treatment of gonorrhea, a single dose of ciprofloxacin at a dose of 0.250-0.5 g is recommended;
- gynecological diseases, enteritis, and colitis with the severe course and high fever, prostatitis, osteomyelitis – 0.5 g 2 times a day (for the treatment of banal diarrhea, you can use a dose of 0.25 g 2 times a day);
- other infections – 2 times a day, 0.5 g each;
- particularly severe, life-threatening, including streptococcal pneumonia, infections of bones and joints, septicemia, peritonitis – 2 times a day, 0.75 g.
The drug should be taken on an empty stomach, drinking plenty of fluids. Patients with severe renal impairment should be prescribed a half drug dose.
The treatment duration depends on the disease severity, but treatment should always continue for at least two more days after the disappearance of the disease’s symptoms. Typically, the duration of treatment is 7-10 days.
- Children and adolescents under 18 years of age;
- Hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin or other drugs from the group of fluoroquinolones;
- Pseudomembranous colitis.
What are the side effects caused by Cipro?
- Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, increased activity of hepatic transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, bilirubin, pseudomembranous colitis.
- Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, feeling tired, sleep disturbances, nightmares, hallucinations, fainting, visual disturbances.
- Urinary system: crystalluria, glomerulonephritis, dysuria, polyuria, albuminuria, hematuria, a transient increase in serum creatinine.
- Hemopoietic system: eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia, a change in the number of platelets.
- Cardiovascular system: tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, arterial hypotension.
- Allergic reactions: skin itching, urticaria, Quincke’s edema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, arthralgia.
- Adverse reactions associated with chemotherapeutic action: candidiasis.
- Other: vasculitis.
What are the symptoms and treatment of overdose?
The specific antidote is unknown. It is necessary to carefully monitor the patient’s condition, do gastric lavage, carry out common emergency measures, ensure adequate fluid flow. With the help of hemo or peritoneal dialysis, only a small (less than 10%) amount of the drug can be withdrawn.
What is the compatibility of this medicine?
The interaction of ciprofloxacin with other drugs with simultaneous use was not detected.
There is evidence that the systemic use of certain quinolones results in an increase in theophylline concentration in blood plasma, affects the metabolism of caffeine and enhances the effect of oral anticoagulants (including warfarin and its derivatives).
A temporary increase in serum creatinine was reported in patients who were prescribed cyclosporine along with systemic use of ciprofloxacin.
Ciprofloxacin is incompatible with alkaline solutions.